Describes the difference among (a) Acetaminophen, (b) Naproxen, (c) Ibuprofen, and (d) Aspirin. Explains the different dosages, precautions, interactions, and contraindications for each NSAID (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug). Describes how opioid analgesics differ from NSAIDS and explain opioid receptors and opioid metabolism. Describes the risks and abuse and addiction associated with opioid medication and identify patients at risk for substance-use disorders. Discusses the medical and pharmacological similarities and differences among Codeine, Hydrocodone (Vicodin), and Oxycodone (Percocet). Explains each of the above opioids’ dosages, precautions, interactions, and contraindications. Counsels patients concerning the side effects, addictive nature, proper storage, and disposal of opioid medications. Defines pain-management principles with NSAIDS, opioids, and combined NSAID/opioid medications. Describes opioid antagonists and overdose-prevention treatments. Practices effective pain management. Defines and describes the signs and symptoms of opioid-use disorders. Defines and describes anxiolytics used in dentistry, such as Ambien, Ativan, Halcion, Valium, Xanax - along with pharmacological effects, adverse reactions, and contraindications. Defines and describe muscle relaxants used in dentistry such as Flexeril and Klonopin - along with pharmacological effects, adverse reactions, and contraindications. Explains the modern issues of multi-drug resistant infections in dentistry and describe new thinking in antibiotic regimens to combat these resistant pathogens.