Identifies the three major treatment models for addictive behaviors and a brief history of each: (a) the moral model, (b) the medical model, (c) the harm-reduction model. Describes the most recent research on the effectiveness of abstinence and harm-reduction addiction treatment programs and who each approach is best suited for. Lists protective behavioral strategies (PBS) used in moderating alcohol use among college students. Distinguishes “overdose” from “high”, and list risk factors for overdose and strategies for prevention. Describes approaches to treating opioid dependence and the benefits and drawbacks of each.