Lists the neurologic processes causing pain and suffering and the principles of pain assessment. Discusses treatment modalities for primary and secondary headaches, including migraine and rare cephalagias. Lists the “red flags” of medication abuse and approaches to reduce opioid addiction. Describes the differential diagnosis of dental vs. cervical and cervicogenic pain and the appropriate intervention for both. Lists steps involved in the diagnosis and management of spinal pain, including physical and occupation therapy. Describes how the information in this course can be utilized to improve patient care and patient outcomes. Describes for this course, the implications for nursing, dentistry, mental health, and other health professions.