Inflammation, in its broadest sense, is the body’s response to tissue injury. Acute inflammation is typically of short duration, is nonspecific, and may be triggered by any injury. On the other hand, when the inflammation has a slow onset and persists for weeks or months it is referred to as chronic. A major difference between acute and chronic inflammation is that the former is restricted to a specific tissue or organ, whereas the latter affects the lining of the blood vessels throughout the body. In this sense, chronic inflammation is systemic. Chronic, systemic inflammation has been implicated as a major causative factor for several major diseases, including cardiovascular disease, retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. Detection of chronic inflammation is essential in order to prevent and control these disease processes. This course is designed to help clinicians understand the underlying physiological mechanisms that lead to chronic, systemic inflammation so that they may be more capable of assisting patients in avoiding unnecessary suffering, disability, and expense.