Describes the key features of prediabetes, type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Identifies the hormones involved in blood glucose control. Identifies the main macrovascular and microvascular complications of diabetes and describe their underlying pathology. Describes the diagnostic tests for diabetes and outline the values defining normal and abnormal results. Outlines the pharmacologic agents and lifestyle changes in the management and prevention of diabetes.
Identifies the issues in the pathogenesis of fibromyalgia as well as controversies regarding the clinical presentations of this condition. Assesses the differential diagnosis of fibromyalgia, including differentiation from myofascial pain syndromes, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), irritable bowel syndrome, and other conditions. Identifies treatment regimens and management options for fibromyalgia, including “integrative” treatments (exercise and herbal and over-the-counter remedies). Explains to patients the role of sleep disorders in the pathogenesis of fibromyalgia and in the clinical management of this condition.
Describes the patterns and causes of alopecia and hirsutism. Discusses the evaluation and possible treatments for hair loss and hirsutism. Describes changes in nail color, shape, and texture that indicate underlying illness. Lists medications which can cause hair or nail abnormalities. Discusses practical strategies for maintaining healthy hair and nails.
Discusses major risk factors for heart disease. Describes the relationship between obesity and heart disease. Lists commonly used diagnostic procedures in cardiology. Identifies the role of inflammation in heart disease. Lists new guidelines for blood pressure control.
Discusses the goals and challenges involved in palliative care. Lists key aspects of addressing advanced medical directives, do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders, mechanical ventilation, and tube feedings at the end of life. Describes major symptoms encountered in terminal illness and treatment options. Outlines common sources of mental, emotional, and spiritual suffering at the end of life and measures to ease them. Identifies key factors to improve communication with the patient and family members and ease caregiver stress.
Recognizes the significance of the immune system in combating infection and disease. Distinguishes between innate and adaptive immune responses. Identifies the humoral and cellular components of the non-specific immune response. Differentiates between acute and chronic inflammation. Identifies the mechanisms of combating infection/disease. Outlines the components of an anti-inflammatory lifestyle.
Identifies the differences between functional gastrointestinal disorders and inflammatory bowel diseases. Explains the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and identifies appropriate treatment strategies. Discusses the pathophysiology of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative collitis and identify appropriate treatment strategies. Identifies psychosocial issues in chronic gastrointestinal disorders. Discusses new research on the causes of gastrointestinal disorders, such as peptic ulcer disease.
Lists causes and health hazards of falls. Outlines methods of preventing falls among the elderly. Lists the techniques for improving balance among the elderly. Describes procedures to prevent falls and reduce the risks of injury.